Selasa, 29 September 2009

'Top 10' List of Leadership Quotes:

Favorite Leadership Quotes #1

Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things.
Peter F. Drucker

Favorite Leadership Quotes #2

Don't tell people how to do things, tell them what to do and let them surprise you with their results.
George S. Patton

Favorite Leadership Quotes #3

Leadership is the art of getting someone else to do something you want done because he wants to do it.
Dwight Eisenhower

Favorite Leadership Quotes #4

A leader is a dealer in hope.
Napoleon Bonaparte

Favorite Leadership Quotes #5

I must follow the people. Am I not their leader?
Benjamin Disraeli

Favorite Leadership Quotes #6

The leadership instinct you are born with is the backbone. You develop the funny bone and the wishbone that go with it.
Elaine Agather

Favorite Leadership Quotes #7

Delegating work works, provided the one delegating works, too.
Robert Half

Favorite Leadership Quotes #8

Only one man in a thousand is a leader of men -- the other 999 follow women.
Groucho Marx

Favorite Leadership Quotes #9

The very essence of leadership is that you have to have vision. You can't blow an uncertain trumpet.
Theodore M. Hesburgh

Favorite Leadership Quotes #10

The best executive is the one who has sense enough to pick good men to do what he wants done, and self-restraint to keep from meddling with them while they do it.
Theodore Roosevelt

Top 10 Inspirational Coach Quotes

Inspirational Coach Quote #1

Leadership, like coaching, is fighting for the hearts and souls of men and getting them to believe in you.
Eddie Robinson

Inspirational Coach Quote #2

Make sure that team members know they are working with you, not for you.
John Wooden

Inspirational Coach Quote #3

The secret to winning is constant, consistent management.
Tom Landry

Inspirational Coach Quote #4

Over coaching is the worst thing you can do to a player.
Dean Smith

Inspirational Coach Quote #5

Coaching is a profession of love. You can't coach people unless you love them.
Eddie Robinson

Inspirational Coach Quote #6

A coach is someone who can give correction without causing resentment.
John Wooden

Inspirational Coach Quote #7

In a crisis, don't hide behind anything or anybody. They are going to find you anyway.
Bear Bryant

Inspirational Coach Quote #8

You can motivate by fear, and you can motivate by reward. But both those methods are only temporary. The only lasting thing is self motivation.
Homer Rice

Inspirational Coach Quote #9

Either love your players or get out of coaching.
Bobby Dodd

Inspirational Coach Quote #10

Without self-discipline, success is impossible, period.
Lou Holtz

Famous Coach Quotes

Coaching is not a natural way of life. Your victories and losses are too clear cut.
-- Tommy Prothro

Make sure that team members know they are working with you, not for you.
-- John Wooden

Leadership, like coaching, is fighting for the hearts and souls of men and getting them to believe in you.
-- Eddie Robinson

Coaching is a profession of love. You can't coach people unless you love them.
-- Eddie Robinson

What makes a good coach? Complete dedication.
-- George Halas

A successful coach needs a patient wife, loyal dog, and great quarterback - and not necessarily in that order.
-- Bud Grant

I'd rather be a football coach. That way you can lose only 11 games a season. I lost 11 games in December alone!
-- Abe Lemons

The secret to winning is constant, consistent management.
-- Tom Landry

Overcoaching is the worst thing you can do to a player.
-- Dean Smith

It's a very bad thing to become accustomed to good luck.
-- Publilius Syrus

I learn teaching from teachers. I learn golf from golfers. I learn winning from coaches.
-- Harvey Penick

In a crisis, don't hide behind anything or anybody. They are going to find you anyway.
-- Bear Bryant

You can motivate by fear, and you can motivate by reward. But both those methods are only temporary. The only lasting thing is self motivation.
-- Homer Rice

My responsibility is leadership, and the minute I get negative, that is going to have an influence on my team.
-- Don Shula

Either love your players or get out of coaching.
-- Bobby Dodd

Trainer Quotes

A life coach does for the rest of your life what a personal trainer does for your health and fitness.
Elaine MacDonald

After Richmond, we went to Dover and tested that week at Kentucky. I was going to Dover and we had to get the trainer to meet us at the airport. I had to do some therapy on my ribs they hurt so bad.
Sterling Marlin

And I found out, the other part of it is that I found out and in my desire to life successfully, that baseball fit very well into my life. It's been a great teacher, trainer, mentor and you'll see what I mean in the next few minutes that I have to speak.
Dave Winfield

And, of course, method is very important as is a high-quality specialist (trainer) working with you to keep you going in the right direction for your improvement and to help create results.
Sergei Bubka

Being a conductor is kind of a hybrid profession because most fundamentally, it is being someone who is a coach, a trainer, an editor, a director.
Michael Tilson Thomas

Everybody needs feedback, and it's a heck of a lot cheaper than paying a trainer.
Doug Lowenstein

I go to the gym five days a week and I have a personal trainer. I am on a strict diet, which is kind of hard to keep up with on the road, but I stick to it as well as I can.
Lou Gramm

I had a flight trainer who is one of the biggest and most famous helicopter pilots the world.
Izabella Scorupco

I happen to have the benefit of having a son-in-law who was the former Mr. France and a trainer. I like being his benefactor and I like the way he works.
Suzanne Somers

I learned Tae Kwon Do and gymnastics and I have a trainer.
Ashley Scott

I really love the karate thing I did on CHIPs. I studied with a trainer because I knew we'd do episodes that had karate.
Erik Estrada

I said, 'Wouldn't it be great if Matt Damon's character fell in love with a girl with a real butt?' They were like, 'Yeah sure, sure - here's your personal trainer.'
Franka Potente

I started working out with a trainer and I immediately saw results.
Taylor Dayne

I want more muscles! I go to the gym three or four times a week with a personal trainer. I can afford that now. I can't put on weight though, no matter how much I eat.
Christopher Parker

I was as big as I have ever been. I had a personal trainer and was working out. I was feeling good. I was muscular. I had never weighed more than 155 pounds.
Marc Wallice

I worked with the same trainer that worked with Denzel Washington in THe Hurricane. It was three months of training, five days a week, 4 to 5 hours a day. This was followed by a month of choreography.
Wentworth Miller

I'm about to challenge for the Maryland Cup in the next couple of years, as an owner, a trainer, and a rider.
Davy Jones

Most of the time I meet my trainer at the gym and we do a lot of everything: weights circuit with cardio, football drills, sprinting with weights on the treadmill.
Charisma Carpenter

My wife being a trainer helps, because when I'm at home, everything we keep at the house is pretty healthy.
James Denton

The only two men I have time for are Barack Obama and my trainer.
Sophia Bush

There's something so familial and intimate between a boxer and his trainer.
Jimmy Smits

Well I am grooming him, he has a boxing trainer that knows what he is talking about, and once he has that he is able to put everything together and he listens, and when somebody listens they are able to accomplish anything.
Michael Moorer

Quotations about Teachers

I like a teacher who gives you something to take home to think about besides homework. ~Lily Tomlin as "Edith Ann"

The dream begins with a teacher who believes in you, who tugs and pushes and leads you to the next plateau, sometimes poking you with a sharp stick called "truth." ~Dan Rather

In teaching you cannot see the fruit of a day's work. It is invisible and remains so, maybe for twenty years. ~Jacques Barzun

Teaching is the profession that teaches all the other professions. ~Author Unknown

If a doctor, lawyer, or dentist had 40 people in his office at one time, all of whom had different needs, and some of whom didn't want to be there and were causing trouble, and the doctor, lawyer, or dentist, without assistance, had to treat them all with professional excellence for nine months, then he might have some conception of the classroom teacher's job. ~Donald D. Quinn

Modern cynics and skeptics... see no harm in paying those to whom they entrust the minds of their children a smaller wage than is paid to those to whom they entrust the care of their plumbing. ~John F. Kennedy

A teacher is one who makes himself progressively unnecessary. ~Thomas Carruthers

Good teaching is one-fourth preparation and three-fourths theater. ~Gail Godwin

A teacher who is attempting to teach without inspiring the pupil with a desire to learn is hammering on cold iron. ~Horace Mann

Most teachers have little control over school policy or curriculum or choice of texts or special placement of students, but most have a great deal of autonomy inside the classroom. To a degree shared by only a few other occupations, such as police work, public education rests precariously on the skill and virtue of the people at the bottom of the institutional pyramid. ~Tracy Kidder

A teacher affects eternity; he can never tell where his influence stops. ~Henry Brooks Adams

A good teacher is like a candle - it consumes itself to light the way for others. ~Author Unknown

The true teacher defends his pupils against his own personal influence. He inspires self-distrust. He guides their eyes from himself to the spirit that quickens him. He will have no disciple. ~Amos Bronson Alcott

A good teacher is a master of simplification and an enemy of simplism. ~Louis A. Berman

We expect teachers to handle teenage pregnancy, substance abuse, and the failings of the family. Then we expect them to educate our children. ~John Sculley

Good teachers are costly, but bad teachers cost more. ~Bob Talbert

The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires. ~William Arthur Ward

The best teacher is the one who suggests rather than dogmatizes, and inspires his listener with the wish to teach himself. ~Edward Bulwer-Lytton

A teacher's purpose is not to create students in his own image, but to develop students who can create their own image. ~Author Unknown

What the teacher is, is more important than what he teaches. ~Karl Menninger

Teaching should be full of ideas instead of stuffed with facts. ~Author Unknown

A cross-eyed teacher can keep twice the number of children in order than any other, because the pupils do not know who she's looking at. ~Four Hundred Laughs: Or, Fun Without Vulgarity, compiled and edited by John R. Kemble, 1902

Teaching is leaving a vestige of one self in the development of another. And surely the student is a bank where you can deposit your most precious treasures. ~Eugene P. Bertin

A teacher is a compass that activates the magnets of curiosity, knowledge, and wisdom in the pupils. ~Ever Garrison

Teachers who inspire know that teaching is like cultivating a garden, and those who would have nothing to do with thorns must never attempt to gather flowers. ~Author Unknown

Teachers who inspire realize there will always be rocks in the road ahead of us. They will be stumbling blocks or stepping stones; it all depends on how we use them. ~Author Unknown

Teaching is not a lost art, but the regard for it is a lost tradition. ~Jacques Barzun

One looks back with appreciation to the brilliant teachers, but with gratitude to those who touched our human feelings. The curriculum is so much necessary raw material, but warmth is the vital element for the growing plant and for the soul of the child. ~Carl Jung

The teacher who is indeed wise does not bid you to enter the house of his wisdom but rather leads you to the threshold of your mind. ~Kahlil Gibran

The task of the excellent teacher is to stimulate "apparently ordinary" people to unusual effort. The tough problem is not in identifying winners: it is in making winners out of ordinary people. ~K. Patricia Cross

When you teach your son, you teach your son's son. ~The Talmud

The best teachers teach from the heart, not from the book. ~Author Unknown

Often, when I am reading a good book, I stop and thank my teacher. That is, I used to, until she got an unlisted number. ~Author Unknown

Who dares to teach must never cease to learn. ~John Cotton Dana

There are three good reasons to be a teacher - June, July, and August. ~Author Unknown

A teacher should have maximal authority, and minimal power. ~Thomas Szaz

To teach is to learn twice. ~Joseph Joubert, Pensées, 1842

The secret of teaching is to appear to have known all your life what you just learned this morning. ~Author Unknown

Don't try to fix the students, fix ourselves first. The good teacher makes the poor student good and the good student superior. When our students fail, we, as teachers, too, have failed. ~Marva Collins

The object of teaching a child is to enable him to get along without his teacher. ~Elbert Hubbard

Teaching is the only major occupation of man for which we have not yet developed tools that make an average person capable of competence and performance. In teaching we rely on the "naturals," the ones who somehow know how to teach. ~Peter Drucker

Teachers are expected to reach unattainable goals with inadequate tools. The miracle is that at times they accomplish this impossible task. ~Haim G. Ginott

The art of teaching is the art of assisting discovery. ~Mark Van Doren

Quotations From Teachers:

The only reason I always try to meet and know the parents better is because it helps me to forgive their children. ~Louis Johannot

If you promise not to believe everything your child says happens at school, I'll promise not to believe everything he says happens at home. ~Anonymous Teacher


Highly Effective
10 - 15 peserta per kelas

Ideally Effective
16 - 25 peserta per kelas

Less Effective
26 - 35 peserta per kelas

> 35 peserta per kelas

Kamis, 17 September 2009

Values of Counselling and Psychotherapy

The fundamental values of counselling and psychotherapy include a commitment to:

* Respecting human rights and dignity
* Ensuring the integrity of practitioner-client relationships
* Enhancing the quality of professional knowledge and its application
* Alleviating personal distress and suffering
* Fostering a sense of self that is meaningful to the person(s) concerned
* Increasing personal effectiveness
* Enhancing the quality of relationships between people
* Appreciating the variety of human experience and culture
* Striving for the fair and adequate provision of counselling and psychotherapy services

Values inform principles. They represent an important way of expressing a general ethical commitment that becomes more precisely defined and action-orientated when expressed as a principle.

Providing a Good Standard of Practice and Care

All clients are entitled to good standards of practice and care from their practitioners in counselling and psychotherapy. Good standards of practice and care require professional competence; good relationships with clients and colleagues; and commitment to and observance of professional ethics.

Good quality of care

1. Good quality of care requires competently delivered services that meet the client’s needs by practitioners who are appropriately supported and accountable.

2. Practitioners should give careful consideration to the limitations of their training and experience and work within these limits, taking advantage of available professional support. If work with clients requires the provision of additional services operating in parallel with counselling or psychotherapy, the availability of such services ought to be taken into account, as their absence may constitute a significant limitation.

3. Good practice involves clarifying and agreeing the rights and responsibilities of both the practitioner and client at appropriate points in their working relationship.

4. Dual relationships arise when the practitioner has two or more kinds of relationship concurrently with a client, for example client and trainee, acquaintance and client, colleague and supervisee. The existence of a dual relationship with a client is seldom neutral and can have a powerful beneficial or detrimental impact that may not always be easily foreseeable. For these reasons practitioners are required to consider the implications of entering into dual relationships with clients, to avoid entering into relationships that are likely to be detrimental to clients, and to be readily accountable to clients and colleagues for any dual relationships that occur.

5. Practitioners are encouraged to keep appropriate records of their work with clients unless there are adequate reasons for not keeping any records. All records should be accurate, respectful of clients and colleagues and protected from unauthorised disclosure. Practitioners should take into account their responsibilities and their clients’ rights under data protection legislation and any other legal requirements.

6. Clients are entitled to competently delivered services that are periodically reviewed by the practitioner. These reviews may be conducted, when appropriate, in consultation with clients, supervisors, managers or other practitioners with relevant expertise.

Maintaining competent practice

7. All counsellors, psychotherapists, trainers and supervisors are required to have regular and on-going formal supervision/consultative support for their work in accordance with professional requirements. Managers, researchers and providers of counselling skills are strongly encouraged to review their need for professional and personal support and to obtain appropriate services for themselves.

8. Regularly monitoring and reviewing one’s work is essential to maintaining good practice. It is important to be open to, and conscientious in considering, feedback from colleagues, appraisals and assessments. Responding constructively to feedback helps to advance practice.

9. A commitment to good practice requires practitioners to keep up to date with the latest knowledge and respond to changing circumstances. They should consider carefully their own need for continuing professional development and engage in appropriate educational activities.

10. Practitioners should be aware of and understand any legal requirements concerning their work, consider these conscientiously and be legally accountable for their practice.

Keeping trust

11. The practice of counselling and psychotherapy depends on gaining and honouring the trust of clients. Keeping trust requires:
- attentiveness to the quality of listening and respect offered to clients
- culturally appropriate ways of communicating that are courteous and clear
- respect for privacy and dignity
- careful attention to client consent and confidentiality

12. Clients should be adequately informed about the nature of the services being offered. Practitioners should obtain adequately informed consent from their clients and respect a client’s right to choose whether to continue or withdraw.

13. Practitioners should ensure that services are normally delivered on the basis of the client’s explicit consent. Reliance on implicit consent is more vulnerable to misunderstandings and is best avoided unless there are sound reasons for doing so. Overriding a client’s known wishes or consent is a serious matter that requires commensurate justification. Practitioners should be prepared to be readily accountable to clients, colleagues and professional body if they override a client’s known wishes.

14. Situations in which clients pose a risk of causing serious harm to themselves or others are particularly challenging for the practitioner. These are situations in which the practitioner should be alert to the possibility of conflicting responsibilities between those concerning their client, other people who may be significantly affected, and society generally. Resolving conflicting responsibilities may require due consideration of the context in which the service is being provided. Consultation with a supervisor or experienced practitioner is strongly recommended, whenever this would not cause undue delay. In all cases, the aim should be to ensure for the client a good quality of care that is as respectful of the client’s capacity for self-determination and their trust as circumstances permit.

15. Working with young people requires specific ethical awareness and competence. The practitioner is required to consider and assess the balance between young people’s dependence on adults and carers and their progressive development towards acting independently. Working with children and young people requires careful consideration of issues concerning their capacity to give consent to receiving any service independently of someone with parental responsibilities and the management of confidences disclosed by clients.

16. Respecting client confidentiality is a fundamental requirement for keeping trust. The professional management of confidentiality concerns the protection of personally identifiable and sensitive information from unauthorised disclosure. Disclosure may be authorised by client consent or the law. Any disclosures should be undertaken in ways that best protect the client’s trust. Practitioners should be willing to be accountable to their clients and to their profession for their management of confidentiality in general and particularly for any disclosures made without their client’s consent.

17. Practitioners should normally be willing to respond to their client’s requests for information about the way that they are working and any assessment that they may have made. This professional requirement does not apply if it is considered that imparting this information would be detrimental to the client or inconsistent with the counselling or psychotherapeutic approach previously agreed with the client. Clients may have legal rights to this information and these need to be taken into account.

18. Practitioners must not abuse their client’s trust in order to gain sexual, emotional, financial or any other kind of personal advantage. Sexual relations with clients are prohibited. ‘Sexual relations’ include intercourse, any other type of sexual activity or sexualised behaviour. Practitioners should think carefully about, and exercise considerable caution before, entering into personal or business relationships with former clients and should expect to be professionally accountable if the relationship becomes detrimental to the client or the standing of the profession.

19. Practitioners should not allow their professional relationships with clients to be prejudiced by any personal views they may hold about lifestyle, gender, age, disability, race, sexual orientation, beliefs or culture.

20. Practitioners should be clear about any commitment to be available to clients and colleagues and honour these commitments.

Teaching and training

21. All practitioners are encouraged to share their professional knowledge and practice in order to benefit their clients and the public.

22. Practitioners who provide education and training should acquire the skills, attitudes and knowledge required to be competent teachers and facilitators of learning.

23. Practitioners are required to be fair, accurate and honest in their assessments of their students.

24. Prior consent is required from clients if they are to be observed, recorded or if their personally identifiable disclosures are to be used for training purposes.

Supervising and managing

25. Practitioners are responsible for clarifying who holds responsibility for the work with the client.

26. There is a general obligation for all counsellors, psychotherapists, supervisors and trainers to receive supervision/consultative support independently of any managerial relationships.

27. Supervisors and managers have a responsibility to maintain and enhance good practice by practitioners, to protect clients from poor practice and to acquire the attitudes, skills and knowledge required by their role.


28. The Association is committed to fostering research that will inform and develop practice. All practitioners are encouraged to support research undertaken on behalf of the profession and to participate actively in research work.

29. All research should be undertaken with rigorous attentiveness to the quality and integrity both of the research itself and of the dissemination of the results of the research.

30. The rights of all research participants should be carefully considered and protected. The minimum rights include the right to freely given and informed consent, and the right to withdraw at any point.

31. The research methods used should comply with the standards of good practice in counselling and psychotherapy and must not adversely affect clients.

Fitness to practise

32. Practitioners have a responsibility to monitor and maintain their fitness to practise at a level that enables them to provide an effective service. If their effectiveness becomes impaired for any reason, including health or personal circumstances, they should seek the advice of their supervisor, experienced colleagues or line manager and, if necessary, withdraw from practice until their fitness to practise returns. Suitable arrangements should be made for clients who are adversely affected.

If things go wrong with own clients

33. Practitioners should respond promptly and appropriately to any complaint received from their clients. An appropriate response in agency-based services would take account of any agency policy and procedures.

34. Practitioners should endeavour to remedy any harm they may have caused to their clients and to prevent any further harm. An apology may be the appropriate response.

35. Practitioners should discuss, with their supervisor, manager or other experienced practitioner(s), the circumstancess in which they may have harmed a client in order to ensure that the appropriate steps have been taken to mitigate any harm and to prevent any repetition.

36. Practitioners are strongly encouraged to ensure that their work is adequately covered by insurance for professional indemnity and liability.

37. If practitioners consider that they have acted in accordance with good practice but their client is not satisfied that this is the case, they may wish to use independent dispute resolution, for example: seeking a second professional opinion, mediation, or conciliation where this is both appropriate and practical.

38. Clients should be informed about the existence of the Professional Conduct Procedure of this Association and any other applicable complaints or disciplinary procedures. If requested to do so, practitioners should inform their clients about how they may obtain further information concerning these procedures.

Responsibilities to all clients

39. Practitioners have a responsibility to protect clients when they have good reason for believing that other practitioners are placing them at risk of harm.

40. They should raise their concerns with the practitioner concerned in the first instance, unless it is inappropriate to do so. If the matter cannot be resolved, they should review the grounds for their concern and the evidence available to them and, when appropriate, raise their concerns with the practitioner’s manager, agency or professional body.

41. If they are uncertain what to do, their concerns should be discussed with an experienced colleague, a supervisor or raised with this Association.

42. All members of this Association share a responsibility to take part in its professional conduct procedures whether as the person complained against or as the provider of relevant information.

Working with colleagues

The increasing availability of counselling and psychotherapy means that most practitioners have other practitioners working in their locality, or may be working closely with colleagues within specialised or multidisciplinary teams. The quality of the interactions between practitioners can enhance or undermine the claim that counselling and psychotherapy enable clients to increase their insight and expertise in personal relationships. This is particularly true for practitioners who work in agencies or teams.

Working in teams

43. Professional relationships should be conducted in a spirit of mutual respect. Practitioners should endeavour to attain good working relationships and systems of communication that enhance services to clients at all times.

44. Practitioners should treat all colleagues fairly and foster equality opportunity.

45. They should not allow their professional relationships with colleagues to be prejudiced by their own personal views about a colleague’s lifestyle, gender, age, disability, race, sexual orientation, beliefs or culture. It is unacceptable and unethical to discriminate against colleagues on any of these grounds.

46. Practitioners must not undermine a colleague’s relationships with clients by making unjustified or unsustainable comments.

47. All communications between colleagues about clients should be on a professional basis and thus purposeful, respectful and consistent with the management of confidences as declared to clients.

Awareness of context

48. The practitioner is responsible for learning about and taking account of the different protocols, conventions and customs that can pertain to different working contexts and cultures.

Making and receiving referrals

49. All routine referrals to colleagues and other services should be discussed with the client in advance and the client’s consent obtained both to making the referral and also to disclosing information to accompany the referral. Reasonable care should be taken to ensure that:
- the recipient of the referral is able to provide the required service;
- any confidential information disclosed during the referral process will be adequately protected;
- the referral will be likely to benefit the client.

50. Prior to accepting a referral the practitioner should give careful consideration to:
- the appropriateness of the referral;
- the likelihood that the referral will be beneficial to the client;
- the adequacy of the client’s consent for the referral.

If the referrer is professionally required to retain overall responsibility for the work with the client, it is considered to be professionally appropriate to provide the referrer with brief progress reports. Such reports should be made in consultation with clients and not normally against their explicit wishes.

Probity in professional practice

Ensuring the probity of practice is important both to those who are directly affected but also to the standing of the profession as a whole.

Providing clients with adequate information

51. Practitioners are responsible for clarifying the terms on which their services are being offered in advance of the client incurring any financial obligation or other reasonably foreseeable costs or liabilities.

52. All information about services should be honest, accurate, avoid unjustifiable claims, and be consistent with maintaining the good standing of the profession.

53. Particular care should be taken over the integrity of presenting qualifications, accreditation and professional standing.

Financial arrangements

54. Practitioners are required to be honest, straightforward and accountable in all financial matters concerning their clients and other professional relationships.

Conflicts of interest

55. Conflicts of interest are best avoided, provided they can be reasonably foreseen in the first instance and prevented from arising. In deciding how to respond to conflicts of interest, the protection of the client’s interests and maintaining trust in the practitioner should be paramount.

Care of self as a practitioner

Attending to the practitioner’s well-being is essential to sustaining good practice.

56. Practitioners have a responsibility to themselves to ensure that their work does not become detrimental to their health or well-being by ensuring that the way that they undertake their work is as safe as possible and that they seek appropriate professional support and services as the need arises.

57. Practitioners are entitled to be treated with proper consideration and respect that is consistent with this Guidance.

Personal Moral Qualities

The practitioner’s personal moral qualities are of the utmost importance to clients. Many of the personal qualities considered important in the provision of services have an ethical or moral component and are therefore considered as virtues or good personal qualities. It is inappropriate to prescribe that all practitioners possess these qualities, since it is fundamental that these personal qualities are deeply rooted in the person concerned and developed out of personal commitment rather than the requirement of an external authority. Personal qualities to which counsellors and psychotherapists are strongly encouraged to aspire include:

Empathy: the ability to communicate understanding of another person’s experience from that person’s perspective.

Sincerity: a personal commitment to consistency between what is professed and what is done.

Integrity: commitment to being moral in dealings with others, personal straightforwardness, honesty and coherence.

Resilience: the capacity to work with the client’s concerns without being personally diminished.

Respect: showing appropriate esteem to others and their understanding of themselves.

Humility: the ability to assess accurately and acknowledge one’s own strengths and weaknesses.

Competence: the effective deployment of the skills and knowledge needed to do what is required.

Fairness: the consistent application of appropriate criteria to inform decisions and actions.

Wisdom: possession of sound judgement that informs practice.

Courage: the capacity to act in spite of known fears, risks and uncertainty.

The challenge of working ethically means that practitioners will inevitably encounter situations where there are competing obligations. In such situations it is tempting to retreat from all ethical analysis in order to escape a sense of what may appear to be unresolvable ethical tension. These ethics are intended to be of assistance in such circumstances by directing attention to the variety of ethical factors that may need to be taken into consideration and to alternative ways of approaching ethics that may prove more useful. No statement of ethics can totally alleviate the difficulty of making professional judgements in circumstances that may be constantly changing and full of uncertainties. By accepting this statement of ethics, members of the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy are committing themselves to engaging with the challenge of striving to be ethical, even when doing so involves making difficult decisions or acting courageously.

Guidance on Good Practice in Counselling and Psychotherapy

Guidance on good practice in counselling and psychotherapy
The British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy is committed to sustaining and advancing good practice. This guidance on the essential elements of good practice has been written to take into account the changing circumstances in which counselling and psychotherapy are now being delivered, in particular:

* changes in the range of issues and levels of need presented by clients
* the growth in levels of expertise available from practitioners with the expansion in the availability of training and consultative support/supervision
* the accumulated experience of this Association over nearly three decades

The diversity of settings within which counselling and psychotherapy services are delivered has also been carefully considered. These services may be provided by the independent practitioner working alone, one or more practitioners working to provide a service within an agency or large organisation, specialists working in multidisciplinary teams, and by specialist teams of counsellors and psychotherapists. Most work is undertaken face to face but there are also a growing number of telephone and online services. Some practitioners are moving between these different settings and modes of delivery during the course of their work and are therefore required to consider what constitutes good practice in different settings. All practitioners encounter the challenge of responding to the diversity of their clients and finding ways of working effectively with them. This statement therefore responds to the complexity of delivering counselling and psychotherapy services in contemporary society by directing attention to essential issues that practitioners ought to consider and resolve in the specific circumstances of their work.

The term ‘practitioner’ is used generically to refer to anyone with responsibility for the provision of counselling- or psychotherapy-related services. ‘Practitioner’ includes anyone undertaking the role(s) of counsellor, psychotherapist, trainer, educator, supervisor, researcher, provider of counselling skills or manager of any of these services. The term ‘client’ is used as a generic term to refer to the recipient of any of these services. The client may be an individual, couple, family, group, organisation or other specifiable social unit. Alternative names may be substituted for ‘practitioner’ and ‘client’ in the practice setting as the terminology varies according to custom and context.

Ethical Principles of Counselling and Psychotherapy

Principles direct attention to important ethical responsibilities. Each principle is described below and is followed by examples of good practice that have been developed in response to that principle.

Ethical decisions that are strongly supported by one or more of these principles without any contradiction from others may be regarded as reasonably well founded. However, practitioners will encounter circumstances in which it is impossible to reconcile all the applicable principles and choosing between principles may be required. A decision or course of action does not necessarily become unethical merely because it is contentious or other practitioners would have reached different conclusions in similar circumstances. A practitioner’s obligation is to consider all the relevant circumstances with as much care as is reasonably possible and to be appropriately accountable for decisions made.

Fidelity: honouring the trust placed in the practitioner
Being trustworthy is regarded as fundamental to understanding and resolving ethical issues. Practitioners who adopt this principle: act in accordance with the trust placed in them; regard confidentiality as an obligation arising from the client’s trust; restrict any disclosure of confidential information about clients to furthering the purposes for which it was originally disclosed.

Autonomy: respect for the client’s right to be self-governing
This principle emphasises the importance of the client’s commitment to participating in counselling or psychotherapy, usually on a voluntary basis. Practitioners who respect their clients’ autonomy: ensure accuracy in any advertising or information given in advance of services offered; seek freely given and adequately informed consent; engage in explicit contracting in advance of any commitment by the client; protect privacy; protect confidentiality; normally make any disclosures of confidential information conditional on the consent of the person concerned; and inform the client in advance of foreseeable conflicts of interest or as soon as possible after such conflicts become apparent. The principle of autonomy opposes the manipulation of clients against their will, even for beneficial social ends.

Beneficence: a commitment to promoting the client’s well-being
The principle of beneficence means acting in the best interests of the client based on professional assessment. It directs attention to working strictly within one’s limits of competence and providing services on the basis of adequate training or experience. Ensuring that the client’s best interests are achieved requires systematic monitoring of practice and outcomes by the best available means. It is considered important that research and systematic reflection inform practice. There is an obligation to use regular and on-going supervision to enhance the quality of the services provided and to commit to updating practice by continuing professional development. An obligation to act in the best interests of a client may become paramount when working with clients whose capacity for autonomy is diminished because of immaturity, lack of understanding, extreme distress, serious disturbance or other significant personal constraints.

Non-maleficence: a commitment to avoiding harm to the client
Non-maleficence involves: avoiding sexual, financial, emotional or any other form of client exploitation; avoiding incompetence or malpractice; not providing services when unfit to do so due to illness, personal circumstances or intoxication. The practitioner has an ethical responsibility to strive to mitigate any harm caused to a client even when the harm is unavoidable or unintended. Holding appropriate insurance may assist in restitution. Practitioners have a personal responsibility to challenge, where appropriate, the incompetence or malpractice of others; and to contribute to any investigation and/or adjudication concerning professional practice which falls below that of a reasonably competent practitioner and/or risks bringing discredit upon the profession.

Justice: the fair and impartial treatment of all clients and the provision of adequate services
The principle of justice requires being just and fair to all clients and respecting their human rights and dignity. It directs attention to considering conscientiously any legal requirements and obligations, and remaining alert to potential conflicts between legal and ethical obligations. Justice in the distribution of services requires the ability to determine impartially the provision of services for clients and the allocation of services between clients. A commitment to fairness requires the ability to appreciate differences between people and to be committed to equality of opportunity, and avoiding discrimination against people or groups contrary to their legitimate personal or social characteristics. Practitioners have a duty to strive to ensure a fair provision of counselling and psychotherapy services, accessible and appropriate to the needs of potential clients.

Self-respect: fostering the practitioner’s self-knowledge and care for self
The principle of self-respect means that the practitioner appropriately applies all the above principles as entitlements for self. This includes seeking counselling or therapy and other opportunities for personal development as required. There is an ethical responsibility to use supervision for appropriate personal and professional support and development, and to seek training and other opportunities for continuing professional development. Guarding against financial liabilities arising from work undertaken usually requires obtaining appropriate insurance. The principle of self-respect encourages active engagement in life-enhancing activities and relationships that are independent of relationships in counselling or psychotherapy.

ICF Code of Ethics

To advance the art, science and practice of professional coaching.

Part One: Definition of Coaching

Section 1: Definitions

* Coaching: Coaching is partnering with clients in a thought-provoking and creative process that inspires them to maximize their personal and professional potential.

* A professional coaching relationship: A professional coaching relationship exists when coaching includes a business agreement or contract that defines the responsibilities of each party.

* An ICF Professional Coach: An ICF Professional Coach also agrees to practice the ICF Professional Core Competencies and pledges accountability to the ICF Code of Ethics.

In order to clarify roles in the coaching relationship, it is often necessary to distinguish between the client and the sponsor. In most cases, the client and sponsor are the same person and therefore jointly referred to as the client. For purposes of identification, however, the International Coach Federation defines these roles as follows:

* Client: The "client" is the person(s) being coached.

* Sponsor: The "sponsor" is the entity (including its representatives) paying for and/or arranging for coaching services to be provided.

In all cases, coaching engagement contracts or agreements should clearly establish the rights, roles, and responsibilities for both the client and sponsor if they are not the same persons.

Part Two: The ICF Standards of Ethical Conduct

Preamble: ICF Professional Coaches aspire to conduct themselves in a manner that reflects positively upon the coaching profession; are respectful of different approaches to coaching; and recognize that they are also bound by applicable laws and regulations.

Section 1: Professional Conduct At Large

As a coach:

1) I will not knowingly make any public statement that is untrue or misleading about what I offer as a coach, or make false claims in any written documents relating to the coaching profession or my credentials or the ICF.

2) I will accurately identify my coaching qualifications, expertise, experience, certifications and ICF Credentials.

3) I will recognize and honor the efforts and contributions of others and not misrepresent them as my own. I understand that violating this standard may leave me subject to legal remedy by a third party.

4) I will, at all times, strive to recognize personal issues that may impair, conflict, or interfere with my coaching performance or my professional coaching relationships. Whenever the facts and circumstances necessitate, I will promptly seek professional assistance and determine the action to be taken, including whether it is appropriate to suspend or terminate my coaching relationship(s).

5) I will conduct myself in accordance with the ICF Code of Ethics in all coach training, coach mentoring, and coach supervisory activities.

6) I will conduct and report research with competence, honesty, and within recognized scientific standards and applicable subject guidelines. My research will be carried out with the necessary consent and approval of those involved, and with an approach that will protect participants from any potential harm. All research efforts will be performed in a manner that complies with all the applicable laws of the country in which the research is conducted.

7) I will maintain, store, and dispose of any records created during my coaching business in a manner that promotes confidentiality, security, and privacy, and complies with any applicable laws and agreements

8) I will use ICF member contact information (e-mail addresses, telephone numbers, etc.) only in the manner and to the extent authorized by the ICF.

Section 2: Conflicts of Interest

As a coach:

9) I will seek to avoid conflicts of interest and potential conflicts of interest and openly disclose any such conflicts. I will offer to remove myself when such a conflict arises.

10) I will disclose to my client and his or her sponsor all anticipated compensation from third parties that I may pay or receive for referrals of that client.

11) I will only barter for services, goods or other non-monetary remuneration when it will not impair the coaching relationship.

12) I will not knowingly take any personal, professional, or monetary advantage or benefit of the coach-client relationship, except by a form of compensation as agreed in the agreement or contract.

Section 3: Professional Conduct with Clients

As a coach:

13) I will not knowingly mislead or make false claims about what my client or sponsor will receive from the coaching process or from me as the coach.

14) I will not give my prospective clients or sponsors information or advice I know or believe to be misleading or false.

15) I will have clear agreements or contracts with my clients and sponsor(s). I will honor all agreements or contracts made in the context of professional coaching relationships.

16) I will carefully explain and strive to ensure that, prior to or at the initial meeting, my coaching client and sponsor(s) understand the nature of coaching, the nature and limits of confidentiality, financial arrangements, and any other terms of the coaching agreement or contract.

17) I will be responsible for setting clear, appropriate, and culturally sensitive boundaries that govern any physical contact I may have with my clients or sponsors.

18) I will not become sexually intimate with any of my current clients or sponsors.

19) I will respect the client's right to terminate the coaching relationship at any point during the process, subject to the provisions of the agreement or contract. I will be alert to indications that the client is no longer benefiting from our coaching relationship.

20) I will encourage the client or sponsor to make a change if I believe the client or sponsor would be better served by another coach or by another resource.
21) I will suggest my client seek the services of other professionals when deemed necessary or appropriate.

Section 4: Confidentiality/Privacy

As a coach:

22) I will maintain the strictest levels of confidentiality with all client and sponsor information. I will have a clear agreement or contract before releasing information to another person, unless required by law.

23) I will have a clear agreement upon how coaching information will be exchanged among coach, client, and sponsor.

24) When acting as a trainer of student coaches, I will clarify confidentiality policies with the students.

25) I will have associated coaches and other persons whom I manage in service of my clients and their sponsors in a paid or volunteer capacity make clear agreements or contracts to adhere to the ICF Code of Ethics Part 2, Section 4: Confidentiality/Privacy standards and the entire ICF Code of Ethics to the extent applicable.

Part Three: The ICF Pledge of Ethics

As an ICF Professional Coach, I acknowledge and agree to honor my ethical and legal obligations to my coaching clients and sponsors, colleagues, and to the public at large. I pledge to comply with the ICF Code of Ethics, and to practice these standards with those whom I coach.

If I breach this Pledge of Ethics or any part of the ICF Code of Ethics, I agree that the ICF in its sole discretion may hold me accountable for so doing. I further agree that my accountability to the ICF for any breach may include sanctions, such as loss of my ICF membership and/or my ICF Credentials.

Approved by the Ethics and Standards Committee on October 30, 2008.
Approved by the ICF Board of Directors on December 18, 2008.

IAC Code of Ethics

To advance coaching to the highest standards of universal excellence

International Association of Coaching (IAC)

The IAC Code of Ethics Consists of the following:

1. General Standards
2. Advertising/Public Statements
3. Coaching Relationship
4. Privacy and Confidentiality
5. Coaching Training
6. Coaching Research and Publishing


Coaches work in a variety of specializations (such as personal/life and corporate/business) in order to help their clients. Coaches are specifically trained in coaching through a school or mentor coach, and use/incorporate their individual life experience in their practice.

Coaches may use an array of titles, ranging from coach to consultant to facilitator. Although each coach measures their progress differently, achievement is always measured by progress made by the coaches’ clients. Due to the personal nature of most coaching relationships, this Ethics Code provides the framework and values upon which professional coaches base their practice.

The purposes of this Code are threefold. First, it provides the broad principles and values to which coaches subscribe. These include confidentiality and the utmost concern for the welfare and success of the client. Secondly, it provides rules for coaches to use in many of the specific situations that a coach might encounter. Finally, this Code is meant to serve as a building block for the ethical and moral standards of coaches. While each individual coach agrees to follow this Code, they are encouraged to supplement and add to it in order to build a lifelong commitment to building an ethical workplace and profession.

1. General Standards

1.01 Applicability of the Ethics Code.

a) Any code may be considered as a normalization of experience into a set of rules. A code is adopted by a community because its members accept that adherence to such rules, including the restrictions this implies, is of benefit to all, inside and outside the community alike.

(b) This code of ethics is directed to all professional members of the IAC. It consists, essentially, of a series of statements which prescribe minimum standards of practice, to be observed by members. The code is intended to be observed in the spirit and not merely the word.

c) The activity of a coach subject to the Ethics Code may be reviewed under these Ethical Standards only if the activity is part of his or her coaching work-related functions.

1.02 Relationship of Ethics and Law Of The Country.

(a) Although the Law of the country in which the Coach practices will take precedent over the IAC Ethical Standards, coaches will, at a minimum, strive to adhere to the IAC code of ethics.

(b) A coach should not engage in any illegal activities, including, but not limited to, copyright, intellectual property rights, or patent violations.

1.03 Professional Relationship.

(a) Coaches provide their services only in the context of the IAC professional standards.

(b) Trust and responsibility are at the heart of the coaching profession. It is expected that coaches will always act with integrity towards their clients, their peers, and themselves.

1.04 Competence In Coaching.

(a) A coach will not knowingly lay claim to a level of competence not possessed, and will at all times exercise competence at least to the level claimed.

(b) Coaches provide services only within the boundaries of their competence, based on their education, training, or appropriate professional experience. Coaches should only accept work as they believe they are competent to perform.

1.05 Maintaining Expertise.

(a) Coaches maintain a reasonable level of awareness of current best business practices and professional information in their fields of activity, and undertake ongoing efforts to maintain competence in the skills they use.

(b) Coaches keep themselves informed of new technologies, practices, legal requirements and standards as are relevant to the coaching profession.

1.06 Outputs of coaching Services.

(a) When coaches provide coaching services, (inclusive of any assessments utilized), to an individual, a group, or an organization, they use language that is reasonably understandable to the recipient of those services.

(b) If coaches will be precluded by law or by any other means from providing such information to particular individuals or groups, they so inform those individuals or groups at the outset of the service.

1.07 Respecting Others.

(a) Respect for the individual is a cornerstone of coaching relationship.

(b) In their work-related activities, coaches respect the rights of others to hold values, attitudes, and opinions that differ from their own.

1.08 Unfair Discrimination.

In their work-related activities, coaches do not engage in unfair discrimination based on any basis whatsoever.

1.09 Harassment.

(a) Coaches do not knowingly engage in behavior that is harassing or demeaning to persons with whom they interact in their work.

(b) Sexual harassment is sexual solicitation, physical advances, or verbal or nonverbal conduct that is sexual in nature. Coaches ensure that their behavior is at all times appropriate and can in no way be described as harassment in any form.

1.10 Personal Problems and Conflicts.

(a) Coaches recognize that they too may experience personal problems which may exert an adverse effect upon the coach client relationship. Accordingly coaches inform clients of any such problems, and together appropriate action is taken.

(b) In addition, coaches have an obligation to be alert to signs of, and to obtain assistance for, their personal problems at an early stage, in order to prevent impaired coaching performance.

(c) When coaches become aware of personal problems that may interfere with their performing coaching-related duties adequately, they take appropriate measures, such as obtaining professional consultation or assistance, and determine whether they should limit, suspend, or terminate their current coaching activity.

1.11 Making Progress.

Coaches take reasonable steps to ensure that the client progresses, and in cases where there is no progress coaches strive to minimize any harm to their client.

1.12 Misuse of Coaches' Influence.

Because coaches' professional judgments and actions may affect the lives of others, they are alert to and guard against personal, financial, social, organizational, or political factors that might lead to misuse of their influence.

1.13 Misuse of Coaches' Work.

(a) Coaches do not participate in activities in which it appears likely that their skills or assessments will be misused by others.

(b) If coaches learn of misuse or misrepresentation of their work, they take reasonable steps to correct or minimize the misuse or misrepresentation.

1.14 Conflict of Interest.

(a) Whenever feasible, a coach refrains from taking on professional obligations when preexisting relationships would create a risk of conflict of interest.

(b) If a coach finds that, due to unforeseen factors, a potentially conflict of interest relationship has arisen, the coach attempts to resolve it with due regard for the best interests of the affected person and compliance with the Ethics Code.

1.15 Barter.

A coach may participate in bartering only if the relationship is not exploitative. Coaches are free to negotiate accepting goods, services, or other non-monetary remuneration in return for coaching services, within the legal and Income Tax limitations of the country of practice.

1.16 Exploitative Relationships.

(a) Coaches do not exploit persons over whom they may have a management role.

(b) Coaches do not engage in sexual relationships with personnel over whom the coach has evaluative or direct authority, because such relationships may be viewed as exploitative.

1.17 Referrals.

When indicated and if professionally appropriate, coaches may cooperate with other professionals in order to serve their client effectively and appropriately.

1.18 Third-party Requests for Services.

(a) When a coach agrees to provide services to a person or entity at the request of a third party, the coach clarifies to the extent feasible, at the outset of the service, the nature of the relationship with each party. This clarification includes the role of the coach (such as organizational consultant), the probable uses of the services provided or the information obtained, and the fact that there may be limits to confidentiality.

(b) If there is a foreseeable risk of the coach's being called upon to perform conflicting roles because of the involvement of a third party, the coach clarifies the nature and direction of his or her responsibilities, keeps all parties appropriately informed as matters develop, and resolves the situation in accordance with this Ethics Code.

1.19 Delegation to and Supervision of Subordinates.

(a) Coaches delegate to their employees, and assistants only those responsibilities that such persons can reasonably be expected to perform competently, on the basis of their education, training, or experience, either independently or with the level of supervision being provided.

(b) Coaches provide proper training and supervision to their employees and take reasonable steps to see that such persons perform services responsibly, competently, and ethically.

1.20 Records and Information Management.

(a) Coaches create, maintain, disseminate, store, retain, and dispose of records and data relating to their practice, and other work in accordance with the law of the country in which they practice, and in a manner that permits compliance with the requirements of this Ethics Code.

(b) Coaches are recommended to appropriately document their work in order to facilitate provision of services later by them or by other professionals, to ensure accountability, and to meet other legal requirements of their Country.

1.21 Fees and Financial Arrangements.

(a) As early as is feasible in a professional relationship, the coach and the client, or other appropriate recipient of coaching services reach an agreement specifying the compensation and the billing arrangements.

(b) Coaches do not exploit recipients of services or payers with respect to fees, nor do coaches misrepresent their fees.

(c) If limitations to services can be anticipated because of limitations in financing, this is discussed with the client, or other appropriate recipient of services as early as is feasible.

(d) If the client, or other recipient of services does not pay for services as agreed, and if the coach wishes to use collection agencies or legal measures to collect the fees, the coach first informs the person that such measures will be taken and provides that person an opportunity to make prompt payment.

1.22 Accuracy in Reports to Payers.

In their reports to payers for services, coaches accurately and clearly state the nature of the service provided, the fees and/or all other charges.

1.23 Referral Fees.

When a coach pays, receives payment from, or divides fees with another professional other than in an employer - employee relationship, the payment to each is based on the services (referral, consultative, administrative, or other) provided, and is agreed in writing prior to commencement of engagement.

2. Advertising/Public Statements

2.01 Definition

Advertising / Public Statements refer to any written documents or verbal statements that a coach makes publicly available (such as a brochure, article, speech, or professional resume) relating to coaching.

2.02 Statements by Others.

Coaches understand that others may engage in making public statements for them, whether specifically asked to do so or not. Coaches will make their best effort to ensure that any such public statements are true and not misleading.

2.03 Avoidance of False Statements.

Coaches agree not to make any public statements that are false, under any circumstance. Examples of such statements include a coaches’ training or experience and the fees they charge.

3. Coaching Relationship

3.01 Structuring the Relationship.

(a) Coaches will explain their fee structure prior to the first paid coaching session with a client.

(b) Coaches agree to bring up and discuss important topics as early as possible in the coaching relationship. An example of such a topic is confidentiality (See also standard 4.01, Discussing the Limits of Confidentiality.)

(c) Coaches agree to refer clients to other professionals when relevant. Coaches also will refer a client to a counselor, therapist, or psychiatrist as soon as possible if they see or hear a problem that may necessitate mental health treatment.

(d) Coaches make an effort to answer clients' questions and address their concerns about coaching as promptly as possible. When available, a coach will provide written information to address specific concerns about coaching.

3.02 Safety and Well-Being.

(a) Each Coach must make an appropriate referral to a Mental Health Professional or Emergency Service Professional at an early point of recognizing situations in which clients may put their own safety or well-being at risk, or the safety or well-being of others at risk, and in severe situations the Coach must contact a Mental Health Crisis Service or Emergency Service on behalf of the client.

(b) Coaches must not attempt to diagnose or assess any mental health issue or specific problem where clients may put themselves or others at risk, but must act solely out of their personal experience, as coaches are not trained or licensed to make such diagnoses or assessments.

(c) Coaches must notify the appropriate authorities when a client discloses that they are harming or endangering another individual or group. The coach must also attempt to notify the person or group who is being harmed or endangered. The Coach does not need to discern if a mental health problem is present or in fact if the current or imminent harm is in fact illegal.

3.03 Providing Coaching Services to Those Served by Mental Health Professionals.

Each coach must decide whether or not to enter into a coaching relationship with a client who is currently undergoing psychotherapy or other mental health treatment. Most important in making this decision is the client’s welfare.

3.04 Sexual Intimacies With Clients.

Coaches agree not to be sexually involved with current clients.

3.05 Interruption of Services.

Coaches will make reasonable efforts to make other arrangements for any interruption of coaching services. For longer-term interruptions (longer than 1 month), the coach is encouraged to refer clients to other coaches until they are able to resume coaching.

3.06 Terminating the Coaching Relationship.

Coaches agree to terminate a coaching relationship when it becomes clear that the client is no longer gaining benefit (or is being harmed) from the coaching relationship. In terminating the relationship, coaches will suggest alternatives or provide referrals to coaches or other professional services when appropriate.

4. Privacy and Confidentiality

These Standards are applicable to the professional activities of all coaches.

4.01 Discussing Confidentiality and the Limitations Thereof.

(a) Coaches respect the client’s right to privacy. They do not solicit private information from the client unless it is essential in the provision of services, or the implementation of research. The standards of confidentiality apply once disclosure occurs.

(b) The discussion of confidentiality occurs at the beginning of the professional relationship, unless it is contraindicated or infeasible, and from then on as necessary.

(c) Coaches discuss the nature of confidentiality and its limitations with clients and other interested parties. Coaches examine situations in which confidential information may be requested or disclosed.

(d) All information obtained in the course of the professional service is confidential unless there is a compelling professional reason for its disclosure. Coaches will disclose confidential information without a specific release if it is necessary to prevent foreseeable imminent harm to the client or another. In all circumstances, coaches will be judicious in the amount of information that is disclosed.

4.02 Maintaining Confidentiality.

(a) Coaches are fundamentally prudent in the protection of the confidentiality rights of those with whom they work or consult. Coaches acknowledge that professional relationships, institutional regulations, and/or the law may establish confidentiality.

(b) Coaches will not discuss confidential information in any setting unless privacy can be assured.

(c) Coaches discuss confidential information only for appropriate professional, consultative, or scientific purposes and only with persons clearly concerned with such matters.

(d) In their dealings with the public and media (including professional presentations, and writing) coaches will be careful to guard the confidentiality of their clients. Moreover, coaches will disguise confidential information so that clients are not individually identifiable. Coaches will only disclose confidential information if the client or legally authorized individual has given express written consent.

(e) In a consultative capacity, coaches do not share confidential information that could lead to the identification of a client with whom they have a confidential relationship. Coaches may only share this information if they have obtained the prior consent of the client, or if the disclosure cannot be avoided. Furthermore, coaches share information only to the extent necessary to achieve the purposes of the consultation.

(f) Coaches take logical precautions to protect client confidentiality in the event of the coach’s cessation of practice, incapacitation, or death.

(g) Coaches protect the confidentiality of their deceased clients in accordance with this Ethics Code.

4.03 Records and Information Management.

(a) Coaches maintain confidentiality when creating, storing, accessing, transferring, and disposing of records under their authority in accordance with this Ethics Code and laws of their country.

(b) Coaches take precautions to ensure and maintain the confidentiality of information communicated through the use of telephone, voice mail, computers, email, instant messaging, facsimile machines, and other information technology sources.

(c) Coaches take practical and lawful steps to assure that records remain available in order to serve the best interests of clients.

4.04 Disclosures.

(a) Unless prohibited by law, coaches will only disclose confidential information if the client, or person legally authorized to consent on behalf of the client, has given express written consent.

(b) Coaches may disclose confidential information without the consent of the client only as mandated or permitted by law.

(c) When possible, coaches inform clients about the disclosure of confidential information and possible ramifications before the disclosure is made.

(d) Coaches will only disclose confidential information to third party payers with the appropriate written consent.

(e) Coaches must disclose certain confidential information as required by law or if the confidential information may put the client or others at risk of harm or compromise their well-being.

5. Coaching Training

5.01 Design of Training Programs.

Coaches who train other coaches do their best to ensure that their training programs are well thought-out, and will provide the trainee the material that they are seeking.

5.02 Descriptions of Training Programs.

Coaches that train other coaches shall not mislead others about the training they offer.

5.03 Ethics during Training.

Coaches that train other coaches will ensure that they are made aware of this ethics code, when applicable, and will abide by it during the training process.

5.04 Limitation on Training.

Coaches agree to see their own limitations in training other coaches, and in such instances when they don’t feel adequately experienced to train another coach in a specific area or technique, they will refer the trainee to another coach or training program.

6. Coaching Research and Publishing

6.01 Planning Research.

(a) Those coaches that conduct research will design and conduct the research within recognized scientific standards.

(b) Coaching research will be planned to minimize the possibility of misleading results from the collected data.

(c) Coaches that conduct research have the competency to do so, or have other scientific professionals with competency overseeing the research.

(d) Research will be conducted in compliance with all laws of the country in which research is carried out.

6.02 Conducting Research

(a) Approval or consent from research participants or hosting organizations shall be gained, unless (b) below holds true.

(b) Approval or consent from research participants or hosting organizations is not required only in special cases, such as research with anonymous questionnaires or naturalistic observations.

(c) Participants will be informed about the research and its anticipated use(s), in language that is understandable to the general public.

(d) Where applicable, research participants shall be suitably protected from adverse consequences of participating in the research, including (but not limited to) potential consequences of withdrawing from the research.

(e) If inducements are offered to research participants, such inducements shall not be excessive or inappropriate.

6.03 Reporting of Research Results.

When the results of research are made available, coaches will not falsify or fabricate the results. Further, if significant errors in the research are found in the future, appropriate attempts will be made to correct the prior results.

The following applies to all publications by coaches.

6.04 Plagiarism.

Coaches do not copy others’ research or data without prior written permission from the originator.

6.05 Publication Credit.

Coaches take responsibility and credit only for their own work.

6.06 Professional Reviewers.

Coaches who professionally review material prior to publication respect the confidentiality of the work, and credit the publication to the authors that submitted

IAC Ethical Principles

To advance coaching to the highest standards of universal excellence

International Association of Coaching (IAC)


Coaches will maintain high standards of competence in their work.


Coaches will represent themselves in an honest and fair manner, being cognizant of their particular competencies and limitations.

Coaches strive to be aware of their own belief systems, values, needs, and limitations and the effect of these on their work. To the extent feasible, they attempt to clarify for relevant parties the roles they are performing and to function appropriately in accordance with those roles.

Professional Responsibility

Coaches will uphold standards of ethical conduct that reflect well on the individual coach as well as the profession at large.

Respect for People's Rights and Dignity

Coaches will treat clients with dignity and respect being aware of cultural differences, and the client's right to autonomy, privacy, and confidentiality.

Coaches accord appropriate respect to the fundamental rights, dignity, and worth of all people. They respect the rights of individuals to privacy, confidentiality, self-determination, and autonomy, mindful that legal and other obligations may lead to inconsistency and conflict with the exercise of these rights. Coaches are aware of cultural, individual, and role differences, including those due to age, gender, race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, language, and socioeconomic status.

Coaches try to eliminate the effect on their work of biases based on those factors, and they do not knowingly participate in or condone unfair discriminatory practices.


To advance coaching to the highest standards of universal excellence

International Association of Coaching (IAC)

The purpose of the IAC Coaching Masteries™ is to provide the basis and standards for a truly independent certifying body, without allegiance to any coach training schools or organizations. Our goal is to create a vehicle for evaluating effective coaching in the moment. Specifically, the IAC certification focuses on masterful coaching skills that are observable and can be measured by our certifiers during recorded, half-hour sessions with two different clients.

The IAC Coaching Masteries™ were developed by an international team of coaches with the aim to produce clear standards and measures for what constitutes the highest level of coaching, and that can be understood in any culture around the world.
Below is a description of the Masteries including the Titles, Definitions, Effects and Key Elements. The links (for members only) provide a listing of the Distinctions, Effective Behaviours, Ineffective Behaviours, Measures, Common Mistakes Coaches Make and Indicators the Coach Understands the Mastery for each Mastery that are used to assess the level of coaching mastery that happens within a coaching session.

The complete IAC Coaching Masteries E-book is available to IAC Members here and can be purchased on-line by non-members for $27.
The IAC offers a licensing agreement for coach mentors and coaching schools wishing to incorporate the IAC Coaching Masteries™ into their programs and/or to assist coaching mentees or students with IAC certification.

1. Establishing and maintaining a relationship of trust
Ensuring a safe space and supportive relationship for personal growth, discovery and transformation

1. The client is open to sharing and receiving.
2. The client perceives the coach as his or her personal advocate.
3. The client sees transformation and growth as manageable.
4. The client has realistic expectations of results and responsibilities of coaching.

Key Elements
1. Mutual respect and acceptance.
2. Confidence and reassurance.
3. The client feels safe to tell his or her deepest fears without judgment.

2. Perceiving, affirming and expanding the client’s potential.

The coach recognizes and helps the client to acknowledge and appreciate his or
her strengths and potential.

1. The client has greater appreciation of his or her capabilities and potential.
2. The client is more willing to take actions beyond his or her current paradigms.

Key Elements
1. Being in empathy with the client.
2. Recognizing a wider range of possibilities.
3. Encouraging and empowering the client.
4. Challenging limiting beliefs.
5.Recognizing strengths of client and awareness of where strengths support personal and organizational goals (where appropriate).

3. Engaged listening

Give full attention to the words, nuances, and unspoken meaning of the client's communication and is more deeply aware of the client by listening beyond what the client is able to articulate.

1. The client feels understood and validated—not judged.
2. The client communicates more effortlessly and resourcefully.

Key Elements
1. The coach focuses on what the client expresses, both verbally and nonverbally.
2. The coach listens beyond what the client articulates.
3. The coach is alert to discrepancies between what the client is saying (words) and the client’s behavior and/or emotions.

4. Processing in the present

Focus full attention on the client, processing information at the level of the mind, body, heart and/or spirit, as appropriate. The coach expands the client’s awareness of how to experience thoughts and issues on these various levels, when and as appropriate. The coach utilizes what is happening in the session itself (client’s behavior, patterns, emotions, and the relationship between coach and client, etc.) to assist the client toward greater self-awareness and positive, appropriate action.

1. The client is free to express and engage with present reality.
2. The client is unencumbered by past or future preoccupations or concerns.
3. The client benefits from coaching insight and support on all levels.
4. The coach is highly attuned to subtle communications from the client.

Key Elements
1. The coach is aware of the dynamics occurring within the session, within the client, and between coach and client, and understands how the dynamics are affecting the client and the coaching.
2. The coach has a simultaneous and holistic awareness of the client’s communications at all levels.
3. The coach is able to discern whether the client is communicating from the past, present or future.
4. The coach allows the client the opportunity to process and clarify the coach’s questions and comments.
5. The coach allows the client the opportunity to process his or her own thoughts and responses.

5. Expressing

Attention and awareness to how the coach communicates commitment, direction, intent, and ideas – and the effectiveness of this communication.
1. The coaching interaction is enhanced with the client being at ease and trusting.
2. The client is open to understanding and/or questioning any communication from the coach.

Key Elements
1. Respect.
2. Attentiveness.
3. Client-focused.
4. Clarity.
5. Appropriateness.

6. Clarifying

Reduce/eliminate confusion or uncertainty; increase understanding and the confidence of the client.

1. The client and the coach move forward in a more directed way.
2. Increased possibilities.
3. Decreased uncertainty.
4. Uncovering the unknown.

Key Elements
1. Identify the most important issue while respecting client’s preferences and limitations.
2. No judgment by the coach, no leading toward a particular destination.
3. Identify key values and needs.
4. Facilitate alignment of purpose, vision and mission.
5. Identify blocks to progress.

7. Helping the client set and keep clear intentions

Keeps the client focused and working towards intended goals.
1. The client feels capable.
2. The client is clear about what he or she wants to achieve or transform.
3. The client is inspired by the possibilities.
4. The client moves forward purposefully.

Key Elements
1. Inquiring into the client’s intentions and goals.
2. Time spent on what is most important.
3. Clarifying direction of progress.
4. Periodically reviewing, revising and/or celebrating the process and intentions.

8. Inviting possibility

Creating an environment that allows ideas, options and opportunities to emerge.
1. The coach enables expansion of thoughts and actions.
2. The client’s awareness is expanded.
3. The coach helps client transcend barriers.
4. The client is willing to leave his/her comfort zone.
5. The client has more options.

Key Elements
1. Trust, openness, curiosity, courage, and recognition of potential.
2. The coach and the client communicate through exploration and discovery.
3. Identify “internal” possibilities (e.g., personal greatness, higher purpose) and “external” possibilities (e.g., resources, memes).
4. Possibilities are generated by the coach, the client or a collaboration of the two.

9. Helping the client create and use supportive systems and structures

Helping the client identify and build the relationships, tools, systems and structures he or she needs to advance and sustain progress.

The client is confident and secure in moving forward, knowing that resources are available or can be created.

Key Elements
1. The coach suggests possible support systems and structures appropriate to the client’s needs.
2. The coach prompts the client to identify support systems and structures the client has but is not utilizing effectively.
3. The coach assists the client to identify areas in which the client feels a need for support and structure.
4. The client understands the value of appropriate support systems.
5. The client’s progress toward their goals or intentions is more sustainable.

© 2007 International Association of Coaching.
All use, reproduction, distribution and modification of these materials is subject to the terms and conditions of the license available at

Mr. Andi Chaidir & Mr. Drs. Adi Widagdo (Managing Director of OTTO Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd)